Vector-borne diseases are very trendy nowadays, emerging in the countries of the northern hemisphere due to the significant modification of ecosystems: direct action (destruction, urbanization, trade) or indirectly (climate) of man.
A very broad spectrum of pathogens is vector borne.

A vector is “A blood-sucking arthropod that transmits biological or mechanical working of an infectious agent from one animal to another vertebrate. ”
The vectors are:

  • Ticks (piroplasmosis, Hepatozoon, tick-borne encephalitis, erlichiosis, Borreliosis, etc.).
  • Fleas (plague bartonellosis)
  • Mosquitoes (malaria, leishmaniasis)

The dominant vector-borne diseases in dogs and cats in France are those transmitted by ticks. Mosquitoes play only a minor role, unlike in the tropics. Fleas transmit bartonelloses and worms.

How is the transmission?
The vehicle gets the pathogen in a host, ensures its conservation and transport, or its evolution and its propagation and transmission to one or more intermediate or definitive hosts. The saliva of the arthropod biting generally favors the transmission to the host by its immunomodulatory properties.
The vector may also act as a reservoir of pathogens.

List of major pathogens transmitted by vectors to carnivores in France:

TICKS Ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus: South of France & Corsica – Dermacentor – Pholeoixodes hexagonus – Ixodes Ricinus)

  • Bacteria
    • Erlichia canis (Dermacentor)
    • Cyclic thrombocytopenia infectious canine Anaplasma platys (Rhipicephalus sanguineus: South of France & Corsica)
    • Anaplasma phogocytophillum
    • Lyme disease Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Borrelia AFZELLI (Ixodes ricinus)
    • Bartonella
    • Mediterranean spotted fever Rickettsia conorii canine
  • Protozoa
    • Hepatozoon canis (Rhipicephalus s.)
    • Babesia canis lato sensu- Babesia vogeli (Dermacentor reticulatus)
    • Microbabésiose à Theileria annae (Pholeoixodes hexagonus)
    • Babesia gibsoni like
    • Babesia microti like
  • Helminthes
    • Filariasis of Dipetalonema canines to grassii / Dipetalonema reconditum / Dipetalonema dracunculoides

MOSQUITO

  • Virus : Flavivirus
  • Helminthes : Dirofilaria immitis – Dirofilaria repens

PHLEBOTOMY Phlebotomus ariasi et P. perniciosus

  • Virus : Flavivirus / Alphavirus
  • Protozoa : Leishmania infantum

FLEAS

  • Bacteria : Bartonella- Rickettsia – Anaplasmose granulocytaire
  • Helminthe : filariose à Dipetalonema reconditum
  • Cestodose à Dipylidium caninum

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