Maladies vectorielle : Moustiques, tiques et puces en première ligne

Mosquitoes, ticks and fleas are important vectors for human and animal diseases. Human atrocities on the ecosystem generate an increase in the number and geographical distribution of parasites. Consequently, these diseases are becoming an increasing concern.

Global warming, destruction of the rural ecosystem ( leveling of slopes, deforestation , pollution, urbanization ) cause a disruption of complex balances between animal populations, parasites and any microscopic ecosystem, a harmony also depending on the global harmony.

The geographic distribution of Rhipicephalus sanguineus, for example, increased significantly over the past forty years, and originaly confined to the South-East, it is now found in Paris and at the gates of Brittany.

Diseases transmitted by ticks therefore follow the distribution of their vectors. Borreliose, for example , increased from 0.38 to 1.8 cases per hundred thousand inhabitants in 9 years. Erlichiosis is being newly observed in Paris in dogs who do not travel. We could even see appearing borne diseases transported by unknown vectors until then…

Fleas are vectors of pathogens such as Rickettsia felis and Bartonella henselae, the transmission can be done indirectly by cat claws (“spotted fever bullet” bacillary angiomatosis, hepatic peliosis, arthropathy , etc.).

The table below provides an overview of the main infectious agents transmitted by dog ticks ( www.esccap.org )

DISEASES PATHOGENS HOSTS VECTORS
PROTOZOAN
Piroplasmosis Babesia canis canis Dog D. reticulatus
B. canis vogeli Dog R. sanguineus
B. gibsoni et gibsoni like Dog Haemophysalis sp
Dermacentor sp
I. hexagonus
NEMATODE
Filariosis Acanthicheilonema (Dipetalonema dracunculoides, A. grassi, A. reconditum) Dog R. sanguineus
Cercopithifilaria sp Dog R. sanguineus
BACTERIAL
Bartonelloses Bartonella sp Dog, Cat, human, other mammals Ticks suspected
Borreliosis Borrelia borddorferi Many animals I. ricinus, I. hexagonus, I. persulcatus, D. reticulatus
monocytic ehrlichiosis Erlichia canis Dog, Cat R. sanguineus
granulocytic anaplasmosis Anaplasma phagocytophillum Dog, Cat, human, other mammals I. ricinus
Cyclic thrombocytopenia infectious Anaplasma platys Dog R. sanguineus
Mediterranean spotted fever Rickettsia corinii Dog R. sanguineus
Coxiellosis (Q fever) Coxiella burnetti Dog Ixodes sp, Dermacentor sp
tularemia Francisella tularensis Lagomorphes, chat Ixodes sp., Dermacentor sp, Haemophilus sp, R. sanguineus
VIRUSES
European tick-borne encephalitis Flavivirus Dog, rodent, many animals I. ricinus, I. persulcatus
Borreliosis Flavivirus Many animals, mostly dogs and sheeps I. ricinus

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